||Five pillars: Testament that there is one God and Muhammad is his messenger (shahadah); prayer five times daily; fast during Ramadan; charity to the poor (zakat); pilgrimage (Hajj).
||Orthodox Jews recite prayers 3 times daily, with a fourth prayer added on Shabbat and holidays. Shacarit prayer in the morning, Mincha in the afternoon, Arvit at night. Musaf is an extra Shabbat service.
||The Quran. Hadith are not holy scriptures but sayings of the Prophet Muhammad.
||Tanakh (Jewish Bible) , Torah.
||Imam leads congregational prayer in a mosque.
||Traditionally, no clergy other than priests (Cohanim). Religious functionaries like Rabbis, Cantors, Scribes, Mohels. People who specialize in public Torah reading ceremonies. Anyone can lead service or prayer.
||Islam is an Arabic word for “Submission or surrender in Ultimate Peace”.Muslim means a believer in One God (Al-Illah or Allah)
||Of the tribe of Judah.
|Life after death:
||If one is good he or she will be rewarded. If one does bad he or she will be punished after the Day of Judgement.
||World to come, Reincarnation (some groups); temporal suffering in Hell; eventual return to Paradise(Garden of Eden), unifying with God, there are different opinions and beliefs
|Concept of Deity:
||God (Allah) is the only god and is all-powerful and omniscient. God is neither male nor female.
||Belief in one God and teachings of the tradition, prophets and rabbis.
|Goal of religion:
||Submission to the will of God, peace.
||To live. fulfill the Covenant with God. Love God with all your heart and a perfect faith (from the morning service).
||There is a political division Shia and Sunni Muslims, though it is not doctrinal.
||by traditions based on location: Sephard, (Spain, Islands, Arab countries, Turkey) Ashkenaz (Central/Eastern Europe, Germany, France) Greek, MIzrachi: Jemen, India etc. By approach to tradition: Orthodox, Conservative, Reconstructionist, Reform
|Place of origin:
||Mecca, Saudi Arabia
||Say, “He is Allah , [who is] One, Allah , the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is born, Nor is there to Him any equivalent.” – Quran: Surah Al Ikhlas
||They are the Chosen people of God, and must follow their Covenant with Him. A unique ethnicity. Early monotheists.
|Time of origin:
||c 1300 BC
|Identity of Jesus:
||A true prophet of God,the Messiah,born of a chaste vrigin mother (Mary)Jesus is highly respected and loved in Islam, but not worshipped or seen as a son of God. Muslims believed that Jesus preached Islam, but his message was corrupted by some.
||Not God, by some streams recognized as the teacher, some extreme streams recognize him as the Messiah (Jews for Jesus) by some his ideas were a compilation of wise Judean ideas, credited to a generic Jewish name meaning savior.
|Means of salvation:
||Belief in one God, remembrance of God, repentance, fear of God and hope in God’s mercy.
||Through belief in God, good deeds, complete faith.
|Place of worship:
||Mosque/masjid, any place which is clean.
||Synagogues, Western Wall
|Status of women:
||Equal to men as stated in the Quran. Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because “Allah has made one of them to excel the other (in physical power)”.
||Equal to Men in eyes of God and in the Law (Halakha) in reality differs in different traditions. Conservatives & liberals differ greatly
|Use of statues and pictures:
||Muslims are not permitted to depict the image of God nor any prophet.
||Not allowed as it is considered Idolatry.
||Angels are created from light and remain unseen as they worship and follow God’s commands.
||Angels serve God as messengers. World is full of beings existing that we cannot see or understand
||Five pillars: Prayer, purification, funerals, circumsicion, sharing of animals in thanksgiving, Quran recitation, marriage.
||Islam means “submission”, or the total surrender of oneself to the will of God. Some interpret it to mean peace.
||A Jew (Hebrew: יְהוּדִי, Yehudi (sl.); יְהוּדִים, Yehudim (pl.); Ladino: ג׳ודיו, Djudio (sl.); ג׳ודיוס, Djudios (pl.); Yiddish: ייִד, Yid (sl.); ייִדן, Yidn (pl.)) is a member of the Jewish people/ethnicity
|Status of Adam:
||Free from all major sins and faults. Adam (PBUH) is the first prophet and man on earth and he is the father of Humanity, and Muhammad (PBUH) is the last prophet in Islam.
||Disobeyed God in the Garden of Eden. First known use of the Adam/Eve mythology.
|Second coming of Jesus:
||There are around 1.7 to 1.8 billion Muslims in the world. Islam is the second-largest faith of the planet and claims to be the fastest growing
||Around 13-20 Million, debated
|Geographical distribution and predominance:
||Islam exists worldwide while it is the dominant religion of the Middle East, Central Asia, South Asia, South-East Asia, and North Africa.
||Jews are dispersed all over the world, present in almost all countries however the majority lives in Israel, USA, Russia, France, UK
||Women must present themselves modestly to cover the hair and body shape. The hands, face and feet may be left bare. Men must be modestly dressed and covered from waist to knee.
||Jews wear skullcaps called kippot, or yarmulkes. During prayer, men over 13 wear prayer shawls, called Tallit and black boxes called Tefillin, which are reminding the spiritual connection with God. Women cover their heads.
||Man has equal ability to do good or evil. God has given mankind free will.
||two equal impulses, one good and one bad. People decide which one they follow. Human nature is in human hands. You must judge each person for innocence (Avos chap. 1).
||The holy union of a couple. Men is Islam may marry more than one woman (but no more than four) as long as he can treat them all fairly, give them all their rights and support them all.
||Between one man and woman. Marriage can be arranged or it can be a love marriage. In our times monogamistic, against premarital sex. Marriage is the merging of two souls as one
||Islam is an Abrahamic religion originating with the teachings of Prophet Muhammad (a decendent of Ishmael) born in 560 AD came to teach pure monotheism, restore the true religion which had been lost. submission to the Will of God, pure monotheism.
||Judaism is created by Abraham z”l and his descendants c. 2000 bce. Jews are decendants of Josef son of Jaakov son of Ichak son of Abraham z”l. The Law: Torah was given to Moses and to 600 000 Jews leaving Egypt in c, 1300 bce to follow God’s mission
|Views on the afterlife:
||Eternal life in paradise or hell.
||World to come. different opinions.on nature The life after is commonly recognized as the next world. Human soul can be reincarnated, stay in the next world or unify with god. Different beliefs and opinions.
||Christianity, Mandeanism, Islam.
||Ramadan, Eid, Friday.
||Rosh HaShanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Simchat Torah, Chanukah, Tu BiShvat, Purim, Passover, Lag BaOmer, Shavout. Holidays given by God in Torah or created to commemorate historical events. Holocaust remembrance.
||Sharia law is the foundation of Islam to be interpreted literally.
|Belief of God:
||God is the one True Creator. God has always existed, none existed before him and will exist forever. He transcends life and death.
|Day of worship:
||Prayer five times daily is obligatory. Friday is the day of congregational prayer, obligatory for men, but not for women.
||Every day in particular Holidays. The most important is Saturday (Sabbath), many Holidays correspond to agricultural seasons of Israel and the work week, and the prayers explicitly mention this.
|Birth of Jesus:
||Virgin birth from Mary.
||Normal man, normal birth
|View of Animistic religions:
||Paganism is idolatry.
||Pagan (however, like paganism, the earliest Jewish holidays correspond to agricultural and work seasons as do the prayers).
|View of God:
||God is the one True Creator. God has always existed, none existed before him and will exist forever. He transcends life and death. God is one and the only holiness. God is the creator he is beyond human understanding, he is omnipotent
||Hebrew. Later languages: from 500 BCE, Aramaic and Greek koine and ‘Aramized’ Hebrew till 300 ce. Local languages and different extinct and living Jewish languages like Carfati, Yiddish, Ladino, Judesmo etc
||Prerogative of the people
|Death of Jesus:
||He did not die, but was taken into heaven by god, and will come back down to earth.
||Death and crucifixion by Romans
||A false prophet. An ordinary person and not a God.
|Position of Mary:
||Mary receives significant admiration from Muslims. She is said by the Prophet Muhammad to be the best woman God created. She is free of sin as the mother of Jesus.
||Not applicable, as Jews do not believe that Jesus z”l is the Messiah, and therefore, his mother plays no role in the Jewish religion.